To protect human from a virus sized .1 to .3, all leakages in masks are to avoid. The sealing to the face is crucial for 2 reasons. One is the actual leakages that can let the virus in, but also a bad fitting will stimulate touching it to keep it on its place.
Standard masks are designed as an average size that must fit most of the population. But of course not 2 faces are the same. We see big differences depending on race, gender and age. Standard ISO norm masks are designed based on standard dummy heads which are caucasian and male, middle age. A second more profound test can be done on a group of people, but this is not standard.
Therefor we believe we have to look into the differences to find a new average that fits the people in care jobs. We believe that we need at least 3 sizes for perfect fitting and will base these on an average of a set of scanned real faces. The mask becomes a smart mask using AI logic to build an average set of sizes.
An open Source and Multi-dimentional Design with a dencentralized production asks for a specific approach to market the product.
MaskAdam offers a platform to bring offer and demand together. This cooperative structure(*) is owned by all the actors from the value network.
(*) The cooperative offers support to different products and solutions from different actors fighting the crisis.
3D print companies can join the organisation by offering their capacity within the set price per piece and buying a share. Their capacity they offer is the minimum of 500/day. The companies who also print cassettes garantee the safe environment it which the handling takes place.
Assembly and logistics partners also buy a share in the coop and provide their services according their own ability, but with a minimum of 500/day.
Hospitals, schools, care centers but also individuals can buy masks and the filters they prefer on the platform. The platform calculates the nearest production capacity based on the need and sends the order to the local production and logistics companies.
In case of very big amount of orders from the same product (same cassettes), the network looks for industrialized production processes available for high scale and low cost production based on the same research and models. This can be used for export to countries without 3D print capacity.
We list the approved materials for filters for the ADAM model. We keep on developing the model in a multidimensional way with parallel filters for different requirements.
(+) this is the know material used in the traditional masks in the middle of the sandwiched textile.
(+) high fabrication speed once the industrial production is set up
(-) this is the material everybody in the world wants and the resources are running out or it is subject to excessive market dynamics.
(-) a lot of western countries don’t have industrial fabrication, so setting up a factory will take months to maybe a year.
Why the Meltblown cassette is available in the ADAM model? A lot of groups, companies, authorities are working hard to get the production up and running in our countries. Once the availability is high, the mask can be used with the minimal of material needed, once you have the basic personal reusable facial part. This will be the cheapest of the cassettes.
(+) Nano spun material is an extremely fine textile. The virus is 0,1 micron and is carried by for example a tiny water drop so the virus size carried in the air is 0,3 micron. Therefor we need textile that can hold this. Nano technology can do this.
(+) we have local research centers that are doing tests and the first production unites are set up in Spain and France.
(+) We need little material, smaller filters, so better aesthetics and usability for specific requirement of wearing the mask all day, have to perform highly detailed and focused handling.
(-) electrospinning is slow and experimental for the moment.
(-) this material cannot be used stand alone, so you need another textile to carry it. Which makes the production chain longer.
Why electrospinning is a possible filter in the ADAM model? We believe we need a solution on the longer term that can be produced locally. The high end fine material has a lot of advantages in wearability but it will come with a higher price.
bad designed chinees masks
(+) there are a lot of them. They are designed for Asian faces and do not fit the Caucasian face. But if proven the material itself is good, why not reuse it in the filter.
(+) we can make 2 filters from 1 mask
(-) the batch is confiscated, so the gouvernement has to approve and deliver.
(-) limited resources
Why we reuse bad designed masks in the ADAM model? Because in times of scarcity of resources we cannot waste any material that can be used to protect people from the virus.
(+) Available because it is used in household supplies, such as vacuum cleaner filters. (not all of them! but hyper allergic higher protection filters, marked as merv13)
(+) tested to protect for 0,3 micron
(-) big, so big cassette needed, which can hinder the user
(-) price varies a lot
Why ADAM uses a HEPA cassette? Logistics can be set up relatively quick. So this model can maybe be the fastest to be delivered.
We print the facial part in TPU filament (double wand to make sure you have no leakage) and the disposable cassette in PET filled with the filter material available. Make sure you adjust the size according the breathability of the material you use for filters. Here you can find our files.
Because this is a worldwide crisis, all the material is used to at first safe people in the country of production. Besides, most of the certified medical textile for masks has run out or is being sold for excessive prices. A surgical masks consists of 3 layers of (spunbond – meltblown – spunbond) material. The meltblown technique, using PP for example is very specialised and hard to find in local production in our west EU countries. Products made out of Meltblown textile are familiar in our households, but they lack the certification we need. So we need to start from scratch in producing local material. Ideally this can be done in existing industrial environments that can easily change their production line. But it will take months to lounge a production. Our search goes towards other applications of comparable material in the hope we can find a (combination of) existing material and techniques to require our needs.
There are several labs that can perform tests to measure the quality of the mask and material. the first test is a penetration test following EN149 $7.9.2 and EN13274-7.. Once succeeded, the second test is the exposure or loading test following EN149 $7.9.2
This procedure takes about 500 seconds to perform.
- We want to optimize the existing design so that a filter can be placed in the pre-chamber. For this we call on designers to help with testing. Tests can be done on filament printers at home or in fablabs. Various available materials are possible. At Timelab, there are also printers available for this. At the same time, the design is being tested on SLS and finally MJM printers.
- We are looking for laboratories for testing the permeability of fabrics of 0.1 microns.
- We are looking for people with knowledge of plastics. More specifically about extrusion and sterilisation techniques. PP for meltblown procedure.
- People who can optimise the ribbons/stretchers so that they can be reused
- People with knowledge about seals with RTJ system
- Save test environments
- People with experience in printing polypropylene (PP)
- experts in supply chain and sourcing
- companies that produce air filters
- industrial partners that have production units for foam extrusion/production of NWPP and meltblown material
- Even the minimum protection is better than nothing.
- The 3D printed mask ADAM V1 has a high protection, equal to the ffp2 masks. That is the goal of the project.
- The base is reusable and the filter disposable which makes it flexible to use with different quality filters available.
- the design is parametric and open which makes it adjustable to local resources
- Shields give extra protection combined with masks for medical staff under high exposure of the virus.
- Homemade masks are useful for those who are sick and at home.
With open source we don’t mean everyone owning a printer can start printing in their living room. By open source we mean the design can be produced in a decentralised network of hubs all over the world. Which makes the mask and knowledge accessible and adjustable to local resources and needs. Open sourcing is a way to make the product sustainable. Once a viable product is designed it can be spread in no time using all MJM printing units in the world. This is the only way to beat the excesses of creating scarcity in times of crisis.
Of course! If your printer has a heated bed, you can make your own facial part of the mask. You use TPU and make sure you print a double outline. You can decontaminate your model using hydroperoxide tabs used for mouth protheses or put it in cooking water for a minute. You can then buy the filters via the coop to put on to make sure they are not contaminated in the production process.
Yes, all 4 of the types available are safe and protect heath care workers. The only difference between the models is prices, aesthetics and availability of the material used.
- We came a long way in learning about … mostly filters.
- For a good 3D design, there are some examples already available. We selected some of them based on the needs we saw according to the available technics and resources in our local context and research. This is what we selected:
- masks existing out of at least 2 compartments (facial and filter).
- big enough to cover enough of the face without leakage
- printable in flexible material so it fits to the face and filter in hard material
- opening must be big enough the make it breathable.